This study aimed to determine the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and its determinants in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that adolescents with T2D would display impaired LV diastolic function and that these cardiovascular complications would be exacerbated in youth exposed to maternal diabetes in utero.
Left ventricular structure and function, carotid artery intima media thickness and strain, and serum metabolomic profiles were compared between adolescents with T2D (n = 121) and controls (n = 34). Sub-group analyses examined the role of exposure to maternal diabetes as a determinant of LV or carotid artery structure and function among adolescents with T2D.
Adolescents with T2D were 15.1 ± 2.5 years old, (65% female, 99% Indigenous), had lived with diabetes for 2.7 ± 2.2 years, had suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c = 9.4 ± 2.6%) and 58% (n = 69) were exposed to diabetes in utero. Compared to controls, adolescents with T2D displayed lower LV diastolic filling (early diastole/atrial filling rate ratio [E/A] = 1.9 ± 0.6 vs 2.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.012), lower LV relaxation and carotid strain (0.12 ± 0.05 vs 0.17 ± 0.05, P = .03) and elevated levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine. Among adolescents with T2D, exposure to diabetes in utero was not associated with differences in LV diastolic filling, LV relaxation, carotid strain or branched chain amino acids.
Conclusions: Adolescents with T2D display LV diastolic dysfunction, carotid artery stiffness, and elevated levels of select branch chain amino acids; differences were not associated with exposure to maternal diabetes in utero.